THE INLAND

Vol. XX VI.

ARCHITECT AND NEws RECORD

OCTOBER, 1895.

No. 3

A Monthly Journal Devoted to ARCHITECTURE, CONSTRUCTION, DECORATION anD FURNISHING

IN THE WEST.

PUBLISHED BY THE INLAND PUBLISHING CO, 19 Tribune Building, Chicago, I11,.

oe - -- ——- —_—__——

L. MULLER, Jr., Manager.

——_—4—_—

ROBERT CRAIK MCLEAN, Editor.

SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS:

DANKMAR ADLER, D. H. BURNHAM, HENRY VAN BRUNT, P. B. WIGHT, Lovis H. SULLIVAN, ALLEN B. POND, WILLIAM S. MACHARG. Cc. E. ILLSsLey.

W. IL. B. JENNEY, IRVING K. POND, J. R. WILLETT.

TERMS: Regular number, $5 a year; Photogravure edition, $10 a year. Single copies, Regular number, soc.; Photogravure edition (including 7 photo- gravures), $1. Advance payment required.

The columns and illustration pages of THE INLAND ARCHITECT are open to all alike, merit and availability only determining what shall be published. Contributions appropriate to its pages are always desired.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS.

OFFICERS FOR 1895: DANIEL H. BURNHAM, Chicago, Il. ALFRED STONE, Providence, R. I. SAMUEL A. TREAT, Chicago, III.

PRESIDENT SECRETARY TREASURER VICE-PRESIDENTS : *GEORGE B. Post, New York, N. Y. *WILLIAM S. EAMES, St. Louis, Mo.

FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT BOARD OF DIRECTORS: For three years.

*Louis H. Sullivan, Chicago, III. Charles I. Cummings, Boston, Mass. George C. Mason, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. E. I. Nickerson, Providence, R. I. Theodore Carl Link, St. Louis, Mo. W.L. B. Jenney, Chicago, Il. Samuel Hannaford, Cincinnati, Ohio. Wilson Eyre, Philadelphia, Pa.

For two years. FE. H. Kendall, New York, N. Y. G. A. Frederick, Baltimore, Md. Cass Gilbert, St. Paul, Minn. Henry Van Brunt, Kansas City, Mo. C. F. Schweinfurth, Cleveland, Ohio. Jeremiah O'Rourke, Orange, N. J. *Thomas Hastings, New York, N. Y. Robert Stead, Washington, D. C. For one year. Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr., Phila., Pa. Joseph F. Baumann, Knoxville, Tenn. George W. Rapp, Cincinnati, Ohio. A. F. Rosenheim, St. Louis, Mo. William G. Preston, Boston, Mass. R. W. Gibson, New York, N. Y. W. W. Clay, Chicago, Ill. C. H. Johnson, St. Paul, Minn. * These with President, Secretary and Treasurer ex-officio, form Executive Comunittee. STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1895:

Committee on Foreign Correspondence.—Richard M. Hunt, chairman, New York, N. Y.; William Le Baron Jenney, Chicago, Ill.; R. S. Peabody, Boston, Mass.; C. F. McKim, New York, N. Y.; Henry Van Brunt, Kansas City, Mo.

Committee on Education.—Henry Van Brunt, chairman, Kansas City, Mo.; Professor William R. Ware, New York, N. Y.; Professor N. Clifford Ricker, Champaign, Ill.; A. W. Longfellow, Boston, Mass.; Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa.

Committee on Uniform Contract.—Samuel A. Treat, Chicago, Ill.; Alfred Stone, Providence, R. I.; George W. Rapp, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Committee upon Conservation of Public Buildings.—Richard Upjohn, chair- man, New York, N. Y.; Presidents of the several Chapters.

Committee on Publication and Library.—W. 1. B. Jenney, Chicago, II1.; R. W. Gibson, New York, N. Y.; Theo. C. Link, St. Louis, Mo.; Henry Van Brunt, Kansas City, Mo.; Cass Gilbert, St. Paul, Minn.

NoTE.— Officers elected enter upon their term of office January 1, and continue until December 31, unless reélected, except in the case of Directors for two and three years.

The annual conventions of the two national

Convention : Month for Organizations representative of the archi- Architects tectural and building interests of the country

and Builders. wil] be held simultaneously on the 15th of

the present month. But that of the American Institute of Architects will be at St. Louis, while that cf the National Association of Builders will be at Baltimore. The convention of the Institute will be the twenty-ninth, while that of the Builders will be is every prospect that the time of both conventions will be largely taken up with the consideration of amend-

the ninth. There

ments to their respective constitutions and by-laws, for notices have been sent out calling for radical changes in both. It is unfortunate that bodies which meet but once a year should have so much business of this nature to perform as to have little time for the reading and discussion of professional papers, or the consideration of business ethics which most concern the welfare of their members and the large constituencies which they represent.

vensauas It is too late now to offer any suggestions Amendments it relation to the proposed amendments to the by-laws of the Institute. have already voted by letter ballot upon a sweeping amendment to the constitution which proposes to abolish the present large board of directors and substi- tute a small executive committee. failure of this amendment will depend the necessity of considering some of the proposed changes in the by-laws. Another amendment, which will, in any case, be acted upon, provides for the representation of Chapters on the committee appointed at each convention for nominating the ‘‘regular ticket’’ This appears to be a wise measure. also offered which provides that practicing architects may apply and become Fellows of the Institute without first becoming members of any Chapter. This is all very well where there are no Chapters, but it will allow a body of architects in any city where there is a Chapter to come into

to Institute The members

By-Laws.

Upon the success or

of officers for the ensuing year. An amendment is

the Institute and form a local clique in opposition to the authorized local organization which is the representative body of the Institute. It would thereby be put in the power of the directors to destroy the local influence of any Chapter. which proposes to allow the directors to organize two Chapters in the same district, or a second one where one

In line with this is another amendment

is already established, with the condition that the existing Chapter shall be previously ‘‘consulted’’ by the Insti- tute. What this means it is not easy to see ; sulting them, what then ? prevent the directors from establishing an opposition or rival Chapter in the face of a protest.

after con There would be nothing to

The convention of the National Association

National ; 5 ;

Association Of Builders at hospitable Baltimore will have of on its first day an address by Robert D.

Builders. = Andrews, F. A. I. A., of Boston, on ‘* The

Union of Building Trades’ Schools with Schools of Archi- tectural Design.’’ ‘This is the only paper announced. The proposed amendments to the constitution includes

every article except the first.

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THE INLAND ARCHITECT AND NEWS RECORD. [VoL. XXVI. No.3

CONVENTION HALLS. BY DANKMAR ADLER, ARCHITECT. (Concluded.)

HE necessity for affording opportunity for seeing the conven- tion to as many spectators as possible, brings the convention proper into the center of the hall, surrounded by rising

banks of seats for spectators, arranged as nearly as can be on the lines of the Scott Russell isacoustic curve. It would be most desirable, in the interest of good acoustic effect, to construct a ceiling, or sounding board, as low as is p@ssible, over the space occupied by the delegates, and to flare this upward in all direc- tions toward the spectators. But this is generally impracticable and may, even if attempted, defeat its own purpose. For an uncomfortable audience is an unruly audience, and an unruly audience cannot hear anything but the noises produced by itself. These conventions are held during hot weather. The temporary character of the hall prevents the installation of a comprehensive and effective system of mechanical ventilation. Hence there exists a necessity for lofty ceilings as a protection from the effects of the sun beating upon the roof, and as an aid to natural ventilation. The general conditions, then, being’ not at all conducive to good acoustic effects, the comfort of the audience must be depended upon as an important auxiliary to the acoustic success of the hall. As isacoustic lines are almost identical with good light lines an approximation to their attainment in banking the seats enables everyone in the audience to see everyone on the floor of the con- vention proper, and, by relieving the spectator from straining and fidgeting in the effort to see, permits concentration of the faculties upon the effort to hear. Again, people will come and go during sessions, and thus annoy each other. If disturbances from this cause are minimized by placing the aisles near each other say, averaging not more than twelve seats apart —the noise and dis- turbance due to the coming and going of people will be greatly reduced and the audience kept in better temper, and hence in better condition to hear and understand the speeches.

In fact, keeping the audience in good temper is all important. A good system of designating sections, numbering seats and mark- ing approaches is, therefore, of the utmost value, as it gets people to their seats promptly and without unnecessary effort or friction. With this end in view, I make every aisle a section designated by a letter, and that letter conspicuously marked on tickets, coupons and, above all things, upon the approaches which lead to the aisles or sections. It is well to begin the separation already at the entrances to the hall and to mark each of these with the letters of the aisles to be reached through it. Seat numbers of each section should go from each aisle midway to the next aisle. The seat numbers must be plainly marked on the seats in such manner that they can be read when the seats are occupied. It is well to write the first and last numbers of each row of seats upon the floor at its junction with aisle. The ushers should assist in marking the seats and floors. This will familiarize them with their seat num- bers and will enable them to show people to their seats promptly, and therefore unflurried and in contented frame of mind. To prevent noise, confusion, and possible accidents, the chairs should be securely fastened to each other and to the floor, but attention must be paid to the length of the nails used and to the manner in which they are driven, with a view to preventing injury to the clothes and persons of those who occupy the seats.

There should be no standing room. The large corps of ushers, messengers, assistant sergeants-at-arms, etc., which is part of every convention, is in itself fully as large an unseated audience as any hall should be called upon to accommodate. If there is any part of the hall which is not occupied by seats or the necessary aisles, it must be cut off by partitions extending to the ceiling. All aisles should have a covering of matting, as also all stairs within hear- ing distance of the auditorium.

Stairs must be wide. An allowance of 114 to 2 feet per every 100 persons using each flight is reasonable. Stairs wider than five feet should have intermediate rails. All rails should be very strong, so as to form a support in case of panic. Stairs should not be too steep, and should have many broad landings and no winders. In building temporary stairs care must be exercised not to change heights of risers or widths of treads in any one flight, and _par- ticular attention must be paid to the nailing of treads and risers, so they may not get loose under the feet of the audience.

While windows and skylights can be depended upon for day illumination, electric lights will be required for the night sessions. It is quite important that every possible effort be made to protect

the eyes of the participants and spectators of the convention from excessive glare of electric lights and from the glare of sunlight passing through skylights and windows in south and west walls,

The ventilation of a temporary convention hall must necessarily be crude and rudimentary and will have to depend chiefly on win- dows and skylights. It is well to leave openings in the risers for the passage of air, the space under the bankings being enclosed in such manner that no one can get in under the audience. ‘This is a precautionary measure, also, against the accumulation of rubbish, against incendiarism, etc., and against mischievous or criminal meddling with the supports of the raised seats. Of course, all building débris and rubbish must be carefully removed before the erection of the inclosing partitions is begun.

The study and preparation of the drawings for structures of this kind must not be slighted. They require much more care and attention than do the drawings of ordinary buildings. On the general plans every seat, every table, every platform and every step must be drawn, and simultaneous with this process must be the development of the sight lines, which should be drawn to the number of at least three for every section, and the arrangement of seats and steppings must be made to correspond with the sight lines as nearly as possible. As before stated, the sight lines and the lines of the Scott Russell isacoustic curve are almost identical.

Still greater care must be bestowed upon the construction drawings. An effort must be made to attain uniformity of struc- tural members, but circumstances will probably make necessary the adoption of quite a number of typical systems of framing and of many odd and exceptional bents and members. Each typical and every exceptional form and combination should be fully illustrated by drawings drawn to rather large scale —say one- fourth inch to the foot. The position and size of every stick of timber and the relations to each other of the various members of the structure, as well as all methods of fastening, bracing and tieing, should be so clearly indicated on the drawing that misun- derstanding by the contractor or by workingmen of the architect’s intentions may be entirely avoided—albeit sufficient care in working out diagrams of sections in every possible direction and on every possible line of variation of structure will clarify the architect’s ideas and will prevent many an error of judgment. In all cases joists and girders should be laid on top of supporting members, and nails, spikes and bolts should be used freely, but as little as possible as supports, and chiefly to keep the various struc- tural members in position. The positions and dimensions of nails, spikes and bolts should be shown on the drawings.

The factor of safety used for work of this kind should be much larger than would be necessary for a permanent structure, and a framework built of a smaller number of heavy posts and girders is preferable in all cases to the use of many small studs and plates. In fact, the latter should only be used where the height between supports is less than about four feet. If posts or girders are built up of smaller pieces, these should be bolted to each other and the bolts should be used rather lavishly.

The architect’s supervision of the construction of a temporary convention hall must be constant and thorough. Work of this kind is usually done with a rush, and the material generally remains the property of the contractor, and is intended to be removed and used again. This makes him reluctant to spoil the timber by excessive nailing, and calls for constant attention from the architect, who must also be ever alert to prevent the use of improper material, which in the general rush would not otherwise be sorted out and rejected by the contractor.

Finally, the supervision of construction of a convention hall demands unusual attention from its architect because of the many emergencies which are apt to arise and call for immediate decision and action by someone in authority and one accustomed to shoul- dering responsibilities. ‘The work is for the public, and is being closely watched and criticised by the press, while members of local and national managing committees may modify their ideas and requirements many times during the progress of the work, and must be promptly met by the architect with a judicious and prudent firmness, and yet with a facility of invention and a fer- tility of resource in meeting irresistible demands and emergencies which is rarely possessed by an ordinary superintendent or foreman.

In the last days, and especially during the last hours of prepa- ration, the architect will find that he ought to be almost omni- present, if his care of the hall and his solicitude for the comfort of its occupants are to be rewarded by success. And, after the

OCTOBER, 1895]

THE INLAND ARCHITECT AND NEWS RECORD. 23

opening of the convention, I have found it necessary to inspect after each session the condition of the fastenings of seats, the stairways, and all other parts of the hall which were liable to suffer injury or derangement, and have never felt my responsibil- ity ended until after the close of the convention. THE ALL-AROUND ARCHITECT. BY C. H. BLACKALL, ARCHITECT.

“Tt is an honorable employment and worthy of glory for him who creates for future centuries the monuments which will be the admiration of posterity. It ts for you to direct the masons, the sculptors, the bronze founders, the plasterers and stucco workers, and the mosaic workers. You must teach them wherein they are ignorant and must solve for them the difficulties which they encoun- ter. In a word, it is to your enlightened intelligence that the army of men who labor under your direction must have recourse in order that nothing shall be confused or reprehensible in their toils. Con- sider what prodigious knowledge is required of you in order prop- erly to direct so many varied artisans.’—From the instructions given by King Theodoric to his architect.

HE enormous extension of the field which a successful archi- tect is required to cover in his daily practice has seemed to give cause for a subdivision of professional work to an

extent which, while a natural result of existing conditions, might easily lead to a serious misconception of what is the proper scope of the architect’s immediate acquaintance with, and control of, his work. Everyone is inclined to magnify his own calling, and quite rightly and naturally, but it is to be doubted if any profes- sion is as exacting and absorbing of soul and body as that of architecture. There is simply no limit to the amount of study, preparation, hard, grinding work and serious thought that an architect can put into his professional affairs; but with the multi- plication of the architect's functions there has come to be a very considerable difference of opinion as to the necessary attributes of our profession, and many consider the architect’s functions in a much more limited light than did Theodoric. With the introduc- tion of electricity, complicated plumbing, elaborate machinery, extensivesystems of heating and ventilation, intricate constructive details, expensive and scientifically accurate foundations, it has seemed at times as if the proper position for the architect is to be simply a leader among specialists, those who hold this view claim- ing that, if one is able to plan a building wisely, to design it suc- cessfully and to see that his instructions are carried out in execu- tion, he can then safely intrust all of the strictly scientific details to those who make a specialty of doing only one department of the work which enters into a large public building. In other words, the architect need not be the creator of the building in all its functions, but is to be simply the master mind which gives assent to things of which he is often profoundly ignorant.

The architecture of today, while inteusely modern in many of its manifestations, and in nearly all of its practical details, is nevertheless very largely retrospective. We have borrowed our architecture from the past instead of creating it new, and the process of borrowing is so much easier than creating that it is not strange so many of us are willing to leave special evolution to the specialists and content ourselves with liberal borrowing, mean- while flattering ourselves with the belief that, after all, architecture is an art, and science, machinery and business details, though they may be bone and sinew, are not the real fabric. That this position is in opposition to all the teachings of past art must be evident to every student of the history of architecture. There has never been a time when architects might be so much and are so little as at present, and it may also be said that in no country are the architect’s real powers and functions so restricted as in America We are just fairly emerging from the dry barrenness of what someone has very aptly called the vernacular period of our national art, when there was nothing but dry bones, with no thought of real life and beauty to clothe them. The country has been profoundly awakened to an appreciation of the artistic pos- sibilities of architecture, and has manifested this, not only by the works of architects themselves, but by the spirit in which our pro- fessional efforts have been met by that extremely sensitive but often fickle censor which we designate collectively as public Opinion. We are trying to be artistic and are not making such a

very bad success of it, even putting it at the worst; but in the process it is to be questiéned whether an architect is doing wisely to take the attitude that le can leave any part of his work to

specialists. I would not be understood as saying that an archi- tect should do all of the work himself—should make every draw- ing, should calculate every beam, should determine every current of air, or the value of every pound of steam —for, while this would be the ideal condition and would undoubtedly lead to better build- ings by developing the isdividual, still no one can ignore the commercial element which obliges the architect, if he is to earn his living, to draw around him assistants who shall share his work, shall formulate his ideas and put them into proper shape for execution. But there is a great difference between designing a building through one’s assistants, retaining meanwhile a firm hand upon the whole, and the other course of designing only a small portion and abandoning the balance without reserve to those whom we are willing to acknowledge know more than we do about a detail, though they may be entirely out of key with the general idea. The true architect may be less scientifically exact than the specialist, while really knowing and appreciating far more, in an architectural sense, and I can hardly believe it will be possible to rise to the independent plane of artistic thought which has characterized the great creative epochs of the past without a thorough and practical knowledge of every detail of the building on the part of the one who undertakes to design it. It is not enough to make our buildings merely visibly artistic. That is the vitally essential condition without which there is no hope, for no matter how well constructed and thoroughly planned an edifice may be, it does not become architecture until it is adorned; but, on the other hand, we know by the experience of our sires that the adornment which is accompanied by coherency in vital functions gives rise to the art which is permanent, and which has a lasting effect upon the creator and upon those who study it.

It may be almost impossible to draw the line as to how far the architect shall carry his scientific attainments. Surely he should never go to the extent of interfering with proper imaginative treatment of his designs. But the danger, especially with our younger men who do not appreciate vital necessities so keenly as those who have suffered by neglecting them, is that, when archi- tecture is looked upon simply as pure art, a feeling arises that science may be ignored, not merely in practice, but in principle, and that not only can an architect be pardoned for not figuring his own trusses, determining his own foundations, or properly devising heating surfaces, but also that he need not know any- thing about them at all and can safely abandon the whole thought of such things to specialists. I firmly believe that this is wrong. The excuse is sometimes made that in the ordinary scope of human life it is not possible for an architect to learn all of these things; that he cannot acquire all of this knowledge so as to put it in practical use; that it would be hopeless and absurd to under- take to do things himself when someone else could do them a great deal better. That may be with conditions as they are. But it should be recognized that not everyone is called to be an archi- tect; that not merely because one loves to draw, or admires beauty, can he become a true artist ; that he who wishes to rank first must undergo the preliminary pains; that a young man should not expect to leave college at twenty and start in busi- ness at twenty-one; that there are long years of patient, earnest toil required in order to master his profession. This does not imply that we must know more than the specialists, that We should never call in their help nor let them direct us; but it does follow that the architect who keeps a close watch upon every function of his work, who understands enough about all of its details to take hold and do them himself if necessary, who is not at a loss for procedure when his practical adviser is on a vacation or sick in other words, who is the real head and center of a build- ing, stands more chance of producing good architecture, and is more truly entitled to rank as an architect, than one who is willing to content himself with planning and designing, turning over the other details without a thought or murmur toa specialist. Fur- thermore, there is no evidence that this knowledge cannot be acquired by a man of sufficient capacity in the course of the fifteen or twenty years’ training which ought to form a necessary part of The engineering problems involved Whether as applied

every architect’s education. in a large building are, after all, simple ones. to constructive details or to steam or power engineering, they are much similar in all cases, and, after half a dozen or more practical experiences with actual building operations, these engineering requirements are determined more often by judgment and what we vaguely call common sense than by mathematics or book learning.

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24 THE INLAND ARCHITECT AND NEWS RECORD. [VoL. XXVI. No. 3

I was much interested a short time since in conversation with a young man who was desirous of entering my office as a student. He was a graduate of one of our largest universities and had taken special honors in mathematics, carrying his investigations through a post-graduate course up into the higher realms of computative fancy where, as he said himself, he felt the chief object of study was to hopelessly tangle up a problem for the sake of clearly elucidating it. He told me he had given up pure mathematics, and had undertaken to study architectural construction, but to his surprise found that, after he had accurately figured out some por- tion of a structure, there would arise reasons or conditions which would seem to ignore the results of his mathematics and substitute therefor larger timbers, heavier steel, or, in some cases, even a smaller section of column. In other words, that there was a factor entering into the business calculations which was not purely mathematical and which seemed to be possible of acquirement only through long experience. It is so with nearly all the so-called practical branches of architecture. The amount of real book learning, of actual instruction in schools and classes that is required to master the details of steam heating, plumbing, elec- tricity, structural steel work, or any other of the even extraordi- nary problems which arise, can be compressed into the compass of a very few years, so that there is ample opportunity, if the incipient architect will but take it, to master enough of the technical depart- ments of architecture to enable him to successfully plan and direct the execution of every portion of the work which an architect has to do. Of course, he who has the largest experience is best able to do this successfully. The man whose work has been limited to wooden houses knows little of a twenty-story office building, and the draftsman whom kind friends start in business before he knows how to calculate a girder has no one but himself to blame if he finds himself unable alone to handle complicated structures, and it is a poor excuse for his limitations to say that the requirements of modern architecture render the employment of specialists impera- tive.

Now, no one can lay down the law for anyone else without endangering the safety of his own glass houses. We all make mistakes, artistically as well as practically mistakes of judgment and mistakes of science and it behooves every architect who is confronted with the construction of a large building to surround himself with all the checks and safeguards possible ; to employ specialists to revise his work, to advise with him if necessary. In the multitude of counsels there is always safety, but there must be only one head cook if the broth is to be good, and that head must control everything, down to the minutest detail. Very- likely much will escape us. It is almost sure that we will make mistakes and blunders, but growth is measured quite as much by intent as by achievement. We ail want to be good architects, we all want to thoroughly understand our profession, and I believe that, while all architects are not equal to some architects, and that the capaci- ties with which we are endowed by nature impose very decided limitations, it is quite within the limits of architectural education and certainly within the bounds of professional requirements, to know thoroughly in detail everything that goes into a building, to be what is sometimes termed an all-around architect, and what- ever our success may be individually, the attempt to thoroughly understand our profession is sure to do more good to us and to the co@ntry at large than if we simply make up our minds to be a business head directing the many functions of a building by acqui- escence rather than by deliberate intent.

There is another function of the architect which is scorned with contempt by the artist and is even looked at askance as savoring of unprofessionalism. Why should it not be a part of an architect's education to post himself upon real estate values and the financial operations usually a part of the creation of a public building? When a client comes to an architect for advice in regard to a building one of the first questions he is very apt to ask is, what will it cost, and it seems right for him to expect that the architect should be able to answer this with a very considerable degree of accuracy ; should be sufficiently posted in the values of materials and should keep sufficient track of the prices of labor and manufactured articles to be able to give tangible, reliable fig- ures, within certain limits, of what the building will cost and how quickly it can be built. The next question the client will ask is apt to be, what will it pay? And I see no reason why it should not be just as much a part of the architect’s equipment to know the reuting value of property, the price of land, the earning capacity of money, the rate at which mortgages can be placed, as

it is for him to know the carrying capacity of a beam or the strength of a foundation. Neither has to do with art. The busi- ness questions have simply to do with business success, and it seems unreasonable to deny that he should be able to completely advise his client as to location, purchase and renting capacity of a good investment. Architects’ estimates are usually looked at with very slight favor by business men, and, in the rare cases where an architect’s opinion is asked on such subjects, it must be admitted that the results do not justify any great faith in his judgment. I aim speaking now, however, of conditions which might be, rather than of those which are, and, if the architect is to be thorough master of his art, by the same token should he be thorough master of his business and all its ramifications.

Now this leads directly to a further amplification of the archi- tect’s functions. Theodoric practically told his architect to be the master builder. Such a thing as a master builder was unknown in those days, and has only come about now by reason of the ignorance of the architect in practical details and the distrust by the owner of his architect’s ability to control a varied set of me- chanics. I believe the time is coming when the master builder, as such, will disappear, and the architect, as far as relates to the direction of work, to the making of contracts for material and the completion of the building within specified times, will very largely take his place ; the builder, as such, being an employer of labor and a manufacturer rather than what he is now, a business agent. That such a result would be better for the building can hardly be doubted. The closer the architect is in touch with the mechanic, the better it is for both of them. ‘The more the archi- tect has to do with the execution of the work on the spot, the less likely he is to be misled in his judgment by mere office produc- tions, and I hope the time will come when a client will employ his architect not merely to plan but to actually build his build- ings, and will say to him just as Theodoric said to our worthy prototype, that he must do everything to be done about the build- ing, and must have his hands and his eyes upon every detail both of design and execution; directly employing the men, telling them what to do, and being in constant touch with the actual operations. The whole responsibility of a building should rest, not upon the builder, but upon the architect. If the builder is at lib- erty to do his work in one way, and the architect feels it ought to be done in another, there is bound to be a certain amount of wasted time or wasted endeavor; while, if the architect is the director of everything, and tells not only what shall be done but how it shall be done, we will approach a condition of artistic development which, while similar to that which marked the Ital- ian Renaissance, would be as much ahead of it in every respect as our modern implements and modern business methods are ahead of the limited scope afforded the builders of the middle ages. There are not lacking signs that something of the sort will come about. Some of the best architects in the country have been doing just this to a limited extent for some time. In the case of one very prominent building in the Southern States, the archi- tects, who unquestionably stand at the head of the profession, made the contracts in their own name and superintended the work first and last more as builders than as architects, without, how- ever, acting in any other capacity than as the adviser and active agent of the owner. In another building, involving a cost of sev- eral million dollars, in which a good deal of special construction was necessary, the architects found it advisable and obtained the sanction of their clients to what has practically amounted to edu- cating the workmen under their own eyes, employing the labor, buying the material, and acting in nearly every respect as the master builder, with the exception that they were the representa- tives and agents of the owners, and their interests were to make the building exactly as the owner wanted it rather than to merely carry out a specific contract. Now, according to the code of ethics, which has been adopted by some architectural bodies in this coun- try, such a procedure is unprofessional. But he is a brave man who will say that a course which is unprofessional today must necessarily be so for all time. And here again we come back to the vital question of the architect's capacity. To occupy the dual position of architectural adviser and master builder an architect must have a practical and thorough education to an extent for which very few of our young men are willing to give the time. He must not only be an all-around architect but an all-around con- structor. Not that he need take up his chisel and his plane, but he surely ought to know when the chiseling is right and the plan- ing complete.

OCTOBER, 1895]

THE INLAND ARCHITECT AND NEWS RECORD.

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If it be feared that such a condition of professional affairs would involve a derogation of artistic possibilities or a curtailment of the imaginative qualities which must enter into every great architectural work, the answer is: If we are to do our work at its best we architects must be content with less of it. It is rarely possible for one architect to handle many buildings at once and make them all successful. If the chief idea is to make money in the profession then the more specialists we have, the less the architect does himself; the more he delegates to others, the better man he is. But if we are sincerely trying to do the best that can be done, if we intend truly to be the creator of our works, then we must go slowly, we must take things by degrees, and we cannot expand ourselves over a great territory without becoming so shallow that the bare spots will appear where we least expect them. Under the existing commercial conditions no architect can financially afford to concentrate his thought and time upon a single building, for a commission of five per cent would in most cases fail to even pay expenses; but if an architect is to give his client such service as would be implied by doing the work of both archi- tect and master builder, while at the same time acting altogether in the owner’s interest, the latter can well afford to pay him fifteen per cent rather than five, and the result to both architect, owner and builder would be far more satisfactory. Indeed, this has been tried in a very few rare cases and has worked with perfect satisfac- tion, and the time may come when not only will architects feel that they must be all-around men, must know other things besides art, must be able to take hold and do the work as well as telling someone else how to do it, but besides this the public which hires architects will more fully appreciate than now that it pays to get a good man, that it pays to let him alone after he is employed, and that it pays to give him proper remuneration.

Aside, however, from any ideals which the future may have in store for the profession, we must grapple with the intense, com- petitive conditions of actual practice, which are tending every year toward more rather than fewer complications. It may be all right for us to subdivide our work and share our responsibility, but surely no harm can come from a knowledge of all details, and a thorough mental equipment for all structural and scientific, as well as artistic, emergencies, and, although our urgent desires for wealth and fame may prompt us to accept every commission that comes to us, is it not best to at least attempt to master the whole, and never admit our limitations even to ourselves, so that we may look on our buildings as rightly and truly our own in every conceptive detail, even though we thereby merit for our epitaph :

‘““He hath done more than he could "’?

CONSTRUCTION IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.

BY CONRAD H. B. SCHAEFER.

the progress of ornamental practice. New things in con-

struction make opportunities for new things in decorative design. Strange to say, however, the more conversant designers become with the classics the less adaptable they become to mod- ern suggestions. It places the art between two limitations: The work of the vernacular artist who does not learn the beautiful system that is his heritage, and that of the scholastic artist who persistently refuses to ennoble it by adaption to modern contingen- cies.

One not indicating, by their handling of exteriors, features associated with outward life, may turn to the encyclopzedia, learn when such improvements were first incorporated in buildings, and calculate how many centuries their work is behind the times. Constructional contrariness (as it at first seems) is an invaluable basis for enrichment.

Architect Richardson's improvement upon Romanesque orna- mental precedents is not the backbone of his work. It is the expression of new peculiarities in plan and service that impart the distinguished character to his designs. It is not the supremacy of the Roman architectural style that is celebrated in the Columbian Exposition buildings. It is the adaptability of Greek detail to wonderfully advanced methods of building.

The architectural student has to accompany the developments of the hour with two endeavors: The assistance of the artisan in his efforts at improvement, and the artistic expression of that advance- ment. If this is not done, then the work is a failure. On the morrow it is a discovered failure, and, the next day after, a condemned failure. It is not classic because it is a veneered

r NHE advance of mechanical methods in architecture insures

expression of contemporary circumstances. Veneers are always short-lived. When ornamentation is confined to the expression of structural suggestion the result falls far short of what the wealth of ornamental motives indicate to be possible. This wealth so exceeds the capabilities of the average designer that the architec- tural embellishment is divided into many different styles. Their combination in one great order only depends upon proper archi- tectural erudition. The latest constructive methods are prelim- inary experiences that introduce the architectural system of the approaching time. First in order, metal construction is very likely destined to exposure at critical points. Riveted portions will be made convenient for examination. It will increase the